## If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water 😀

It’s that time of the year folks, where quenching your thirst with a cool drink is your top most priority. Beer, Lemonade, whatever is up for grabs. But the last thing you would want is your drink to be warm.

So, let’s look at some hacks to turn that warm beer that you have into a cool scintillation for your body and soul.

## The physics

Compared to air, water is the better thermal conductor.

It is like you have a tennis ball and 2 pipes with different diameters ( one bigger than the ball and other smaller ).

The tennis ball will pass easily through through the larger diameter whereas it will be quite difficult with the smaller one.

Air is like the smaller pipe – offers higher resistance to the transfer of heat. But water offering lower resistance than air cools the beer faster.

## The physics

An ice cube melting will take up energy, while an ice cube freezing will give off energy. Ergo, for ice to melt, it requires energy

Here’s how the heat would be exchanged ( without addition of salt ):

Beer —–> Can —–> Water —–>Ice (melts it )

Water( initially > 0°C ) and ice ( initially < 0°C ) continue to exchange heat until they approach equilibrium temperature ( 0°C ).

## What happens when you add salt ?

freezing point i.e . The temperature at which a liquid changes into a
solid. This is 0°C. But the addition of salt makes this drop further
down.

Here’s how the heat would be exchanged ( with the addition of salt ):

Beer —–> Can —–> Water( colder ) —–> Ice ( melting )

Water( initially > 0°C ) and ice ( initially < 0°C ) continue to
exchange heat until they approach equilibrium temperature ( in this case < 0°C ).

The water reaches 0°C and continues to drop below it ( w/o freezing ) because the freezing point has been lowered with the addition of salt

Since there is much larger temperature gradient between the can and the water, the heat transfer also increases. This cools down the beer much faster than the former.

Pretty cool huh?

Although this post focuses on beer, it is applicable to any other drink as well. Have fun ! ;D

Where to go next:

Why does salt decrease freezing point?

More Beer hacks

# The best things come in small packages (#1)

People often brag about Large Hadron Collider as having one of the
most sophisticated Technology in the world. True, but even if you are
living in France, it’s still inaccessible! I believe that accessibility
is the true trait of technology.

Look around the place that
you are sitting in. Do you see a Ball Point pen lying around in the
vicinity? Chances are that it is, are really high.

Today on FYP, we will
unravel the modest physics that governs it.

## The physics

Behold the ball in a ball point pen!.

To write you glide your pen onto the paper right? So what you are doing is rolling the ball that is present on the pen’s tip.

The ink flows continuously under the influence of gravity from the ink reservoir to the ball.

The ball rolls and the ink gets transferred onto the paper.

## Why does the ink not pour out ?

This has everything to do with Surface Tension.

A drop of water falling off a tap experiences considerable resistance due to water molecules attracting each other. But eventually the drops are overwhelmed by the weight of water that it falls down,

In a narrow diameter tube such as a refill of a ballpoint pen, the ink offers much higher resistance than that of water. Therefore the surface tension wins and holds the ink together.

And also some pens have a safety plugs that aid in this.

I feel I must add, in the interest of completeness, that my childhood
research showed that if you remove the tube from the pen casing and suck
on the open end hard enough, the ink will eventually exit through that

## Ball point pen Hack

There are frustrating moments where you know that ink has not fully drained out but yet the pen refuses to write. Well, violently scrubbing it on sheet and shredding the first few pages is a way out of the mess.

But instead try this: Get a lighter or heat source and heat the metal tip. That usually works to loosen up what ever is blocked the ball point.

Why does this happen ?

Generally because the rolling ball has picked up some fibers off the
surface being written on, which gets caught between the ball and the
reservoir, effectively plugging it up

If you thought this post was cool, stay tuned for part-two to be posted tomorrow

## Why can’t you cycle backwards ?

As a avid cyclist, I have always found it baffling that you can’t cycle backwards

I mean seriously, cant you that to slow the thing down by cycling it backwards or something on that lines. Like what is up with that ?

## Behold the Freewheel

Lets lay out the problem in its profound glory

When you pedal the cycle forward, the cycle moves. But when you pedal it backwards, nothing happens!!

This is accomplished by something known as a freewheel that is attached to the rear wheel. It looks like this :

When you pedal forward, the pawl ( the red part ) engages with the dents on the periphery and the cycle moves forward.

But when you pedal backwards or stop pedaling, the ratchet does not engage with anything, therefore the cycle just remains at its current state of motion.

Do you hear a “tick” sound every time you spin the wheel anti-clockwise? That’s the pawl just clashing with the dents, producing a ticking sound

Voila! Simple and Elegant

Here’s a diagrammatic representation of the above arrangement.

Can you slow down the cycle by cycling backwards? Well Yeah! They are accomplished using coaster brakes. If you are interested check’em out.

Have a great day!

# If I could catch a rainbow

If i could catch a rainbow,

I would just do it for you

And share with you it’s beauty,

On the days you are feeling Blue.

Rainbows are nature’s optical illusion.

It’s not possible unfortunately to catch a rainbow. They are not objects and are not located at specific distance from the observer that one can physically approach.

Rainbows stems from an optical illusion caused by any water droplets viewed from a
certain angle relative to a light source.

They are user-specific and everyone sees a different rainbow.

## The monochrome rainbow

Not all rainbows that occur in nature are multicolored. Under specific
atmospheric conditions, one can spot the Mono-chrome rainbow i.e It has
only one color.

PC : rodjonesphotography

## Moonbows

A Moonbow / Lunar rainbow /White rainbow  is a
rainbow produced by light reflected off the surface of the moon (as
opposed to direct sunlight) refracting off of moisture-laden clouds in
the atmosphere / from waterfalls.

PC:

GanMed64

## Each of your eyes sees a different rainbow.

Just as no two people see exactly the same rainbow, even if they’re
standing next to each other, the few inches between your eyes make a
difference in what you are viewing.

## There is no color- indigo ( sort of )

One can distinguish almost all colors in a rainbow but Indigo.

Legend has it that Newton
included indigo because he felt that there should be seven rather than six colors in a rainbow due to his strong religious beliefs.

## Origins of ‘Iris’

The Greeks and Romans thought a rainbow was the path made
by Iris, the goddess of the rainbow, between heaven and earth, linking
gods with humans. “Rainbow” in Latin is arcus iris or arcus pluvius, a “rainy arch”.

The iris of the eye is named after her, because of its
colour.

The
Greeks used the word “iris” to describe any coloured circle, such as
the “eye” of a peacock’s tail. The flower called iris gets its name from
the Greek, as does the chemical iridium (Ir), compounds of which are
highly coloured. Iris is also the root of “iridescent”.

## Pulsating Rainbows

Place a linear polarizer over the camera whilst capturing a rainbow and you get pulsating rainbows.

## Double Rainbows/ Multiple Rainbows

A double rainbow is a phenomenon in which two rainbows appear. They are caused by a double reflection of sunlight inside the raindrops. Similarly multiple rainbows are a possibility as well.

Observe that the colors in the second rainbow are inverted because the light is reflected twice inside the water droplet

PC: Janbazian

## Viral Double Rainbow Video

This video of a man witnessing a double rainbow for the first time went viral,  featuring on numerous popular talk shows. Pure ecstasy!

## The full rainbow

Whilst standing on earth, we see rainbows as magical arcs across the sky, but rainbows are full circles. The bottom part of the full circle is usually blocked by the horizon.

Pilots however do not face this difficulty. Under the right sky conditions, pilots are spectators to one of nature’s most beautiful spectacles – The full rainbow.

PC :
Steve Kaufman

Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it.

Have a great day!

## Chain Reaction.

Everyone knows that a line of standing dominos creates a fun chain reaction when you knock the first one over; but did you know you can use increasingly larger dominos and get the same result?

## The setup.

Professor Stephen Morris knocks over a 1-meter tall domino that weighs over 100 pounds by starting with a 5mm high by 1mm thick domino.He uses a size ratio of 1.5, meaning each domino is one and a half times larger than the last one. This is the generally accepted maximum ratio that dominos can have to successfully knock each other over.

Hans Van Leeuwen of Leiden University in the Netherlands, published a paper online showing that, theoretically, you could have a size ratio of up to two. But that’s in an ideal (and probably unrealistic) situation.

## Fun fact.

There are 13 dominoes in this sequence. If Professor Morris used 29 dominoes in total, with the next one always being 1.5x larger, the last domino would be the height of the Empire State Building.

Source: Physics Buzz.

## Minimal Math Concepts +

These are the work of Marlon Tenório, who runs a blog called minimalmathconcepts. What he does is take concepts and illustrate them in a exquisite fashion. Check him out! His work is remarkable.

And if you really like his work, you can also buy his goodies on-line here.

Kudos MMC+ on such a good work and all the very best to you mate 🙂

** When FYP surfaced on Tumblr, we were just another blog. And big giants like space-exploration and mind-blowing-science, were so generous to uplift us. And we are just following the Tumblr tradition 🙂 Cheers!

## The Subtle Pythagoras Theorem

Pythagoras famously quoted:

Do not say a little in many words but a great deal in a few

And his theorem is a draconian illustration of these words.

* This happens to be one of my favorite proofs of the theorem, but feel free to explore the legion others that are in existence, like this one :

Good Day!

## Coin Tosses are Biased

Although textbooks claim that the probability of getting heads in a coin toss is 50 %, but I am quite sure that when you gave it a try, the outcomes were a little different.

The probability of a coin toss is not 50/50 – it’s closer to 51/49, biased toward the side that was up when the coin was thrown into the air!

*Also , dirt, oil stains and other particulate matter on the coin might contribute to the biasing of the tosses.

**This biasing occurs only when we humans toss a coin and is not applicable to machines

Have a Good Day!

By virtue of everyday usage, the fact
that (-1) x (-1) = 1 has been engraved onto our heads. But, only
recently did I actually sit down to explore why, in general negative
times negative yields a positive number !

## The Intuitive Argument

Let’s play a game called “continue the pattern”. You would be surprised, how intuitive the results are:

2 x 3 = 6

2 x 2 = 4

2 x 1 = 2

2 x 0 = 0

2 x (-1) = ??  (Answer : -2 )

2 x (-2 ) = ?? (Answer : -4 )

2 x ( -3) = ?? (Answer : -6 )

The number on the right-hand side keeps decreasing by 2 !

Therefore positive x negative = negative.

2 x -3 = -6

1 x -3 = -3

0 x -3 = 0

-1 x -3 = ?? (Answer : 3)

-2 x -3 = ?? (Answer : 6)

The number on the right-hand side keeps increasing by 3.

Therefore negative x negative = positive.

Pretty Awesome, right? But, let’s up the ante and compliment our intuition.

## The Banker’s Interpretation

We can think of negative number as a debt.

If my bank account contains \$ -3 then I owe the bank \$3.

Suppose that my debt is multiplied by 2, then surely the debt becomes \$6. So it makes perfect sense to insist that 2 x -3= -6.

What then should -2 x -3 be?

Well if the bank kindly writes off ( takes away ) two debts of \$3 each. My account balance is now 0. It is exactly as though i had deposited \$6 to my account.

So, in banking terms -2 x -3 = +6

## The Number Line Approach.

Imagine a number line on which you walk. Multiplying x*y is taking x steps, each of size y.

Negative
steps require you to face the negative end of the line before you start
walking and negative step sizes are backward (i.e., heel first) steps.

So, -x*-y means to stand on zero, face in the negative direction, and then take x backward steps, each of size y.

Ergo,
-1 x -1 means to stand on 0, face in the negative direction, and then
take 1 backward step.

This lands us smack right on +1 !

I am saving the best for the last.

Obviously I cannot call -1x -1 as -1 since if that were the case then :

-1 x 1 = -1 and also -1 x -1 = -1. We get,

-1 x 1 = -1 x -1

i.e then -1 = 1 by virtue of cancellation.Which is absurd.

Hence it is +1

Powerful technique!

## Concluding remarks.

Hope you enjoyed the post and Pardon me if you found this to be
rudimentary for your taste. This post was inspired by Joseph H.
Silverman’s Book – A friendly Introduction to Number Theory. If you are passionate about numbers or math, in general it is a must read.

There are several other arithmetic methods that prove the same, if you are interested feel free to explore.

Have a Good Day!