But in Jackson’s Classical Electrodynamics, III edition he notes the following:
This is an interesting form of the Laplacian that perhaps not everyone has encountered. This can obtained from the known form by making the substitution and simplifying. The steps to which have been outlined below:
Here you can see the lightning striking the empire state building three times.
As you might know skyscrapers like these have a lightning rod that will carry the lightning bolt’s electrical charge through
the path of least resistance along the cable into the ground, reducing
the risk of fire or heat damage from the strike.
But you might know from high school or college physics that when you have two current carrying wires parallel to each other, then they experience an attractive force towards each other.
An average bolt of negative lightning carries an electric current of 30,000 amperes (30 kA).
So if you were to pass such high currents through a rod, then surely they must experience a substantial magnetic force towards each other and get crushed right ?
Absolutely, Physics always works ! Have a look at this metal tube:
This is what would happen when electric lightning is passed through a metal tube. Using magnetic forces to compress electrical filaments is known as ‘Pinching’.
One cool application for this would be for forming metal cans into interesting shapes.
As soon as the spark gap fires the capacitor discharges an enormous amount
of current through the coil (tens of thousands of amperes). This
discharge creates a magnetic field around the coil.
As the flux lines
pass through the cross section of the can, current is induced and flows
around the can.
This induced current creates its own magnetic field
which opposes the magnetic field from the coil. Between the two magnetic
fields there is now a force pushing inward on the can and outward on the
coil. Once the force is strong enough the can is crushed.
And with large enough voltage, one can blow the can in opposite directions too!
the brain of the pikachu sends a signal through the nervous system to these
electrolytes, opening ions channels and reversing charge polarity,
causing an abrupt difference in electric potential.
The final effect is the generation of electric current, capable of going up to 100,000 Volts during its thunderbolt move.
Result : Opponent stupefied.
Water is better conductor than air
Most of animals that bioelectrogenic in nature are aquatic creatures ( electric eels, rays, cattlefish, etc ) . This is because water is a much better electrical conductor than air, therefore electrical signals signals can be transmitted through water.
This betters the chance for the organism to protect itself against predators. Pikachu is not aquatic because probably the writes didn’t want it be so – Poetic License ;P
Some other pokemons that were also bioelectrogenic were:
Eelektrik and the Eelektross